not intended for profit
It is widely acknowledged
that the Internet has changed forever the way we work together, teach and
learn, talk to each other, as well as find, use, create and share information. -- Paul Conway
- Traditional Fine Arts Organization
(TFAO) advocates placing online -- where feasible -- all films, audio recordings
and paper-printed texts relating to American representational
art. A goal of TFAO is to place on its site all available paper-printed
texts within its field of interest that are not otherwise freely available
on other sites through the efforts of other nonprofit or commercial organizations.
In its site's unique content pages, cross references and links are made
to exhibition catalogues, articles, online videos, DVD and VHS videos,
online audio, illustrated audio, and other compilations for further study.
- Through its publication Resource Library,
TFAO offers a complimentary online publishing service to copyright
holders of paper-printed texts. Resource Library's pages on scholarly texts from institutions and scholarly
text from private sources describe its benefits to both the public
and its sources of content. Resource Library does not charge copyright
holders to publish texts and offers the texts for online reading free of
charge. The texts may be "in copyright" or with expired copyrights
and may be "in print" or out-of-print. Resource Library
secures permission from copyright holders prior to digitizing and publishing
their texts online.
- TFAO's special projects initiative
and conversion of analog text to digital files
and online publication of scholarly texts grant program describe other
essay discovery, permissions and processing programs in addition to the
ongoing services of Resource Library. Other current grant
programs for museums include video and audio
initiatives and transcription of podcast files
to text and online publication. TFAO seeks to discover and share with
institutions further avenues for digitizing information and services.
- Please see TFAO's page Acquisition and deselection
of content for information on other initiatives including Wikipedia.
- Digital Commons repositories
are a means by which the public may access exhibition catalogues, brochures,
didactic wall panels, extended object labels, checklists, marketing materials,
object images, and other information relating to specific exhibitions hosted
by member institutions.
- The organization's website says as of February, 2014 that "Digital
Commons is the leading hosted institutional repository software for universities,
colleges, law schools, and research centers."
- Examples of art museums associated with Digital Commons are: Bellarmine
Museum of Art, Frost Art Museum, La Salle University Art Museum and Sheldon
Museum of Art.
- The Internet Archive was founded
in 1996 to to build an Internet library. It offers from the JSTOR Early
Journal Content collection as
of 2013 over 1,600 pre-1923 articles
from the journal Art and Progress. Most articles relate to American
Scholarly Catalogue Initiative (OSCI) is a a joint effort by the Getty
Foundation and the J. Paul Getty Museum. It is a five year initiative that
brings together the resources of nine art museums. It endeavors to create
ways to incorporate, beyond the usual static artwork images and text of
print publications, audio and video into online catalogues, plus other
features. The OSCI site says that through the efforts of the participants
in the project:
- "...a completely new model of scholarly publishing is coming into
focus, one in which robust future-focused technologies make comprehensive
scholarly information available in beautifully rendered formats for devices
as varied as iPads and dual-screen workstations. Readers will be able to
study detailed images of artworks online, overlay them with conservation
documentation, discover scholarly essays in easy-to-read formats, take
notes in the margins that can be stored for later use, and export citations
to their desktops. Moreover, the system of software tools under development
is being designed to be both flexible and replicable so it can support
a broad variety of other collections-based publication by museums into
- As of February, 2013 a 50 page 2012 interim report titled Moving
Museum Catalogues Online is available for download in .pdf format on
the Getty Foundation's website. The participating musuems plan to publish
scholarly catalogues on their websites. It is not clear to what extent
catalogues will be available without charge to viewers.
- An article titled "The
Transition to Online Scholarly Catalogues," published online in
2011 by Museums and the Web 2011 by Nik Honeysett of the J. Paul Getty
Museum, discusses aspects of OSCI.
- The Universal Library, hosted by
Carnegie Mellon University, is conducting a project named the Million Book
Digital Library to digitize principally "in copyright," although
out-of-print, books on many topics. The books are
free to read on the Web. Persons who wish to have collections of books
digitized and have the texts placed on the Web may contact Denise Troll
Covey at email@example.com.
A project proposal by Raj Reddy, University Professor, School of Computer
Science, and Gloriana St. Clair, University Librarian, concerning The Million
Book project states "NCES reports that 84 percent of libraries around
the country are open between 60 and 80 hours a week. This digital library
would be open 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and 365 days a year for
a total of 168 hours a week, over twice the time most libraries are open.
More than one individual will be able to use the same book at the same
time. Thus, popular works will not be checked out and thus unavailable
to others." Likewise, the texts available on the Web via TFAO-dl may
be accessed by more than one reader at a time at all times during the year.
- Project Gutenberg
(PG) is an Internet producer of free electronic books (eBooks or
eTexts). PG states that the "Project Gutenberg philosophy is to make
information, books and other materials available to the general public
in forms a vast majority of the computers, programs and people can easily
read, use, quote, and search." TFAO has canvassed hundreds of organizations
and individuals to advise them of the PG service. TFAO encourages readers
to consider PG as an option to have books digitized. Readers may
send information on American art history books with expired copyrights
directly to PG. Project Gutenberg announced in October, 2003 that it had
reached its long-standing goal of releasing 10,000 free titles to the Internet,
and that it would soon also release a DVD of most of these titles.
- ManyBooks.net provides free on-demand
download of public domain ebooks from Project Gutenberg and other sources.
It has features such as cover art and other information that might be found
in an online bookstore. As of February, 2013, two out of 108 art titles
in English were devoted to American art.
- In February 2005, the Smithsonian
Archives of American Art received an award of $3.6 million to dramatically
increase the accessibility of its resources. The grant is used to fund
a comprehensive, five-year program to digitize a substantial cross-section
of the Archives' most important holdings, including the papers of a highly
diverse range of artists and arts-related figures from the eighteenth century
to today. At the end of the program, an estimated 1.6 million digital files
will be available to the public. The papers of artists and other archival
collections in the Archives of American Art are now available
online. These collections, containing letters, postcards, sketches,
exhibition records, diaries, and other unique documents, are a rich and
valuable resource for the study of American art and history. Over one hundred
collections are scheduled for digitization over the next five years.
- Making of America is a digital library of texts concerning American
social history from the antebellum period through reconstruction. MOA is
a collaborative effort between Cornell University and the University of
Michigan consisting of a collection of of out-of-copyright books and journals.
Cornell University's MOA
collection provides access to 907,750 pages (as of November, 2004)
in 267 monograph volumes and over 100,000 journal articles from 22 journals.
As of September 1, 2004, the University
of Michigan MOA collection contained 3,322,061 pages from 8,500 books
and 50,000 journal articles. Pages were first digitized as 600 dpi TIFF
images, followed by optical character recognition of the TIFF images. Many
pages have open access while others are restricted. Full text keyword search
is available for both collections.
- Learner.org provides
life long learning on the Web. Several digitized full motion online videos
focus on American art in the A World of Art: Work in Progress series.
A World of Art is a video instructional series on art appreciation
for college and high school classrooms and adult learners. Each program
in this art appreciation series is devoted to a contemporary artist who
takes one or more works of art from start to finish. Broadband video is
streamed via Windows Media Player. Each show is 30 minutes in length.
- Examples are:
- -- Lorna Simpson: Lorna Simpson, photographer, explores the
ambiguous terrain connecting words and images in large-scale landscapes
silkscreened on felt.
- -- Hung Liu: Hung Liu, painter, comments on traditional Chinese
society as she paints a series of works on the Last Emperor and his court.
- -- Beverly Buchanan: Beverly Buchanan, photographer, sculptor,
and painter, focuses on an important symbol of rural Southern culture:
- -- Judy Baca: Judy Baca, painter and activist known for her
mile-long mural in Los Angeles depicting Chicano history, works on two
public art projects in Southern California.
- An opportunity exists for PBS affiliates, museums and other non-profit
owners of VHS/DVD programs to digitize them for online presentation. A
list of videos for consideration are at TFAO's videos
section within catalogues. Local public
television stations have recording equipment to facilitate multimedia and
can be approached by museums for assistance in digitizing museums' video
- P.S.1 Contemporary Art Center, an affiliate of the Museum
of Modern Art in New York, launched in 2004 WPS1, a Web-based radio
station devoted to the arts. WPS1 also served as an audio digital library.
MOMA received from the Skowhegan
School of Painting and Sculpture a set of CD-Rs containing artists'
lectures digitized from analog recordings of Skowhegan's artist faculty.
The lectures were originally intended for use by the School's students
and other artists. Through a grant from the Henry Luce Foundation the lectures
were digitized and placed on DR-Rs, then disseminated to institutions including
MOMA. WPS1 sought permissions from the artists to have selected archived
lectures broadcast on the Web. Please see Wikipedia's entry on WPS1.
Digitizing initiatives with revenue
and profit aspects
- For information on digitizing initiatives with revenue and profit aspects
please click here.
TFAO Free Online Digital Library
Digital Libraries for Museums
Digital Lbraries for Art Dealer Associations
Digitizing Initiatives with Profit Aspects
The eBook future
Related Non-Profit Organizations
Methods and Costs
Survey of Online Exhibition Catalogues,
Brochures, Gallery Guides and Related Materials
Art History and Digital Scholarship: New Avenues of Exploration"
at Archives of American Art, November 15 & 16, 2013, Archives of American
Art, Washington, DC, from the Terra
Foundation for American Art Web page linking to audio
and video resources. Accessed October, 2015.
Notes on copyright and the public domain:
Scholarly Catalogue Initiative (OSCI), a joint effort by the Getty Foundation
and the J. Paul Getty Museum, published in 2012 a 50 page interim report
titled Moving Museum Catalogues Online. It is available, as of February
2103, for download in .pdf format on the Getty Foundation's website. Pages
37 through 42 of the report contain Appendix 2, titled "Intellectual
Property Rights." Appendix 2 was authored by Maureen Whalen, Associate
General Counsel of the J. Paul Getty Trust. She writes about issues related
to online catalogues and includes a draft model form intellectual property
rights permission request.
Wikipedia has a page on the Copyright
Term Extension Act of 1998, which says as of 2/26/13:
- The Copyright Term Extension Act (CTEA) of 1998 extended copyright
terms in the United States by 20 years. Since the Copyright Act of 1976,
copyright would last for the life of the author plus 50 years, or 75 years
for a work of corporate authorship. The Act extended these terms to life
of the author plus 70 years and for works of corporate authorship to 120
years after creation or 95 years after publication, whichever endpoint
is earlier. Copyright protection for works published prior to January
1, 1978, was increased by 20 years to a total of 95 years from their publication
- This law, also known as the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension
Act, Sonny Bono Act, or as the Mickey Mouse Protection Act,
effectively "froze" the advancement date of the public domain
in the United States for works covered by the older fixed term copyright
rules. Under this Act, additional works made in 1923 or afterwards that
were still protected by copyright in 1998 will not enter the public domain
until 2019 or afterward (depending on the date of the product) unless the
owner of the copyright releases them into the public domain prior to that.
Unlike copyright extension legislation in the European Union, the Sonny
Bono Act did not revive copyrights that had already expired. The Act did
extend the terms of protection set for works that were already copyrighted,
and is retroactive in that sense. However, works created before January
1, 1978, but not published or registered for copyright until recently,
are addressed in a special section (17 U.S.C. § 303) and may remain
protected until the end of 2047. The Act became Pub.L. 105298 on October
- 1. ^ U.S. Copyright Office, Circular 1: Copyright Basics, pp. 5-6
- 2. ^ Lawrence Lessig, Copyright's First Amendment, 48 UCLA L. Rev.
1057, 1065 (2001)
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